Brain-machine interfaces for motor control and sensory feedback
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs; also called brain-computer interfaces or neuroprostheses) are devices that connect neural circuits to machines. BMIs hold promise to cure sensory and motor deficits that result from neurological diseases or trauma. Researchers also hope that BMIs will be used to treat cognitive deficits. Currently, the major classes of BMIs are: motor, sensory and bidirectional. Motor BMIs decode motor intentions from brain activity and convert them into movements of artificial actuators, such as computer cursors and robotic limbs. Sensory BMIs deliver artificial sensations from machines to sensory areas of the brain, commonly using intracortical microstimulation. Bidirectional BMIs, also called brain-machine brain interfaces (BMBIs), both extract motor information from the brain and enable artificial sensations.